Κινέζικες παροιμίες, εκφράσεις και ιδιωματισμοί


Κινέζικες παροιμίες, γνωμικά, ιστορικά κ.α.

Κινέζικες εκφράσεις

  • Οι Κινέζοι χρησιμοποιούν πολύ συχνά στην καθημερινή ομιλία τους ιδιωματικές εκφράσεις, οι οποίες αποτελούνται από 4 χαρακτήρες. Οι εκφράσεις αυτές αποκαλούνται 成语 – chéngyǔ. Άλλες πηγές αναφέρουν ότι η κινέζικη γλώσσα περιέχει 5.000 成语, ενώ σε κάποια λεξικά μνημονεύονται περισσότερα από 20.000. Πίσω από το κάθε ένα συνήθως κρύβεται μια ιστορία. Για να τα θυμάται κανείς, καλό (και πολύ ενδιαφέρον) είναι να μελετήσει την ιστορία του κάθε ενός από αυτά.

    Π.χ. Υπάρχει η έκφραση “καταστρέψτε τα woks (κινέζικα σκεύη μαγειρέματος), βυθίστε τις βάρκες” (破釜沉舟, pò fǔ chén zhōu) η οποία δε βγάζει νόημα εκ πρώτης όψης. Στήριζεται όμως σε ιστορικό γεγονός, κατά το οποίο ο στρατηγός Xiang Yu διέταξε τα στρατεύματά του να καταστρέψουν βάρκες και σκεύη αφού πέρασαν το ποτάμι και εισήλθαν σε εχθρική περιοχή. Αυτή η τακτική της “μη υποχώρησης” του χάρισε τη νίκη.

    Από τις εκφράσεις αυτές πολλές φορές δε βγαίνει νόημα αν τις μεταφράσουμε αυτολεξεί, αν δε γνωρίζουμε την προέλευση, την ιστορία τους κτλ.

    Μέσα από τέτοια ρητά, παροιμίες, εκφράσεις μπορούμε να κατανοήσουμε καλύτερα τον κινέζικο πολιτισμό, την κουλτούρα τους και να βελτιώσουμε το επίπεδό κατανόησης της κινέζικης γλώσσας. Καλό διάβασμα!

    chengyu-kinezikes-ekfraseis-parimies

    Ακολουθούν οι συνήθεις χρησιμοποιούμενες παροιμίες στο HSK:

    实事求是 shi2 shi4 qiu2 shi4 be practical and realistic
    力所能及 li4 suo3 neng2 ji2 in one’s power
    不好意思 bu4 hao3yi4si shy/ feel embarrassed
    千方百计 qian1 fang1 bai3 ji4 by every possible means/ by hook or crook
    粗心大意 cu1xin1 da4yi4 careless/ inadvertent/ negligent
    各式各样 ge4 shi4 ge4 yang4 of all styles and types/ all kinds of
    一路平安 yi1 lu4 ping2 an1 one-mouth-breath/ in one breath/ at one go
    万古长青 wan4 gu3 chang2 qing1 thousands-age-ever-green/ remain fresh forever
    成千上万 cheng2 qian1 shang4 wan4 thousands of/ large quantity of
    兴高采烈 xing4 gao1 cai3 lie4 spirits-high-mood-ardent/ be in high spirits/ be raptured
    一路顺风 yi1 lu4 shun4 feng1 Safe journey
    多劳多得 duo1 lao2 duo1 de2 more pay for more work
    四面八方 si4 mian4 ba1 fang1 four sides and eight directions/ in every direction
    或多或少 huo4 duo1 huo4 shao3 more or less
    画蛇添足 hua4 she2 tian1 zu2 ruin by adding superfluous
    无论如何 wu2lun4 ru2he2 no-matter-like-what/ in any case/ in any event/ at any rate
    无可奈何 wu2 ke3 nai4he2 nothing-could-make-what/ be helpless
    聚精会神 ju4 jing1 hui4 shen2 with complete concentration/ with rapt attention
    自言自语 zi4 yan2 zi4 yu3 self-talk-self-say/ talk to oneself

  • 有两下子 you3 liang3 xia4zi have-two-feats/ know a few tricks of the trade
    自始至终 zi1 shi3 zhi4 zhong1 from-beginning-to-end/ from start to finish
    自相矛盾 zi4 xiang1 mao2dun4 self-mutually-spear-shield/ self-contradiction
    这样一来 zhe4yang4 yi1 lai2 this-way-ever-since/ in this way/ in such a case/ thus
    闹着玩儿 nao4zhe wan2r frolic/ be just kidding/ tease/ act in a frivolous manner
    总而言之 zong3 er2 yan2 zhi1 generalize-and-say-it/ in short/ in brief/ in a nutshell
    不怎么样 bu4 zen3meyang4 not so good/ not particularly good/ pretty bad
    走后门儿 zou3 hou4men2r walk-back-door/ gain advantages through connection
    能歌善舞 neng2 ge1 shan4 wu3 be good at both singing and dancing
    轰轰烈烈 hong1hong1 lie4lie4 dynamic/ vigorous
    理所当然 li3 suo3 dang1 ran2 go without saying/ of course
    合情合理 he2 qing2 he2 li3 fair and reasonable
    理直气壮 li3 zhi2 qi4 zhuang4 one is assured and bold with justice
    和平共处 he2ping2 gong4 chu3 peaceful coexistence
    坚贞不屈 jian1zhen1 bu4 qu1 remain faithful and unyielding/ stand firm and unbending
    接二连三 jie1 er4 lian2 san1 one after another/ in quick succession
    浩浩荡荡 hao4hao4 dang4dang4 go forward with great strength and vigor
    津津有味 jin1jin1 you3 wei4 with relish/ with gusto

    chengyu2
    精打细算 jing1 da3 xi4 suan4 pinch pennies
    开天辟地 kai1 tian1 pi4 di4 since the beginning of the history/ the creation of the world
    全力以赴 quan2 li4 yi3 fu4 do one’s level best/ go all out
    精益求精 jing1 yi4 qiu2 jing1 keep improving
    兢兢业业 jing1jing1 ye4ye4 cautious and conscientious
    敬而远之 jing4 er2 yuan3 zhi1 keep someone at a respectful distance
    举世闻名 ju3shi4 wen2ming2 of world known/ world-famous
    举世瞩目 ju3shi4 zhu3mu4 attract worldwide attention
    门当户对 men2 dang1 hu4 dui4 be well-matched in social and economic status
    美中不足 mei3 zhong1 bu4 zu2 a blemish in an otherwise perfect thing
    可歌可泣 ke3 ge1 ke3 qi4 move one to praises and tears
    可想而知 ke3 xiang3 er2zhi1 you can imagine

  • 没吃没穿 mei2 chi1 mei2 chuan1 have no food and clothes
    来回来去 lai2 hui2 lai2 qu4 come-and-go
    全心全意 quan2 xin1 quan2 yi4 with all one’s heart
    不相上下 bu4 xiang1 shang4 xia4 about the same/ equally matched
    各行各业 ge4 hang2 ge4 ye4 all trades and professions
    从容不迫 cong2rong2 bu4 po4 take one’s time/ calm and unhurried
    川流不息 chuan1 liu2 bu4 xi1 flowing up in an endless stream
    诚心诚意 cheng2 xin1 cheng2 yi4 sincere desire
    层出不穷 ceng2 chu1 bu4 qiong2 emerge in endlessly
    不知不觉 bu4 zhi1 bu4 jue2 unconsciously/ unknowingly
    大公无私 da4 gong1 wu2 si1 selfless/ unselfish
    不言而喻 bu4 yan2 er2 yu4 tell its own tale
    大同小异 da4 tong2 xiao3 yi4 largely identical but with minor difference
    不辞而别 bu4 ci2 er2 bie2 leave without saying goodbye
    不卑不亢 bu4bei1bu4kang4 neither haughty not humble
    暴风骤雨 bao4 feng1 zhou4 yu3 violent storm tempest
    半真半假 ban4 zhen1 ban4 jia3 half-genuine; half-sham
    半途而废 ban4 tu2 er2 fei4 give up halfway/ leave sth unfinished
    百家争鸣 bai3 jia1 zheng1 ming2 a hundred schools of thought contend
    不正之风 bu4 zheng4 zhi1 feng1 unhealthy tendency

    kinezikes-parimies-3
    发奋图强 fa1fen4 tu2 qiang2 work with a will to make the country strong
    顾全大局 gu4quan2 da4ju2 take the whole account into consideration
    供不应求 gong1 bu4 ying4 qiu2 supply falls short of demand
    根深蒂固 gen1 shen1 di4 gu4 being deeply rooted/ in grain
    各奔前程 ge4 ben4 qian2 cheng2 each goes his own way
    七嘴八舌 qi1 zui3 ba1 she2 all talking at once
    格格不入 ge2 ge2 bu4 ru4 incompatible with/ out of tune with
    大包大揽 da4bao1 da4lan3 undertake the whole thing/ take on every thing
    发扬光大 fa1yang2 guang1da4 carry forward
    归根到底 gui1 gen1 dao4 di3 at all time and place
    家喻户晓 jia1 yu4 hu4 xiao3 widely known
    断断续续 duan4duan4 xu4xu4 off and on/ intermittently
    独立自主 du2li4 zi4zhu3 paddle one’s own canoe
    东奔西走 dong1 ben1 xi1 zou3 run around here and there/ rush around
    得不偿失 de2 bu4 chang2 shi1 be not worth the candle/ get more kicks than halfpence
    大有可为 da4 you3 ke3 wei2 be well worth doing/ have bright prospects
    改邪归正 gai3 xie2 gui1 zheng4 give up evil and return to good
    循序渐进 xun2 xu4 jian4 jin4 follow in order and advance step by step
    弄虚作假 nong4 xu1 zuo4 jia3 practice fraud/ resort to deception
    一毛不拔 yi4 mao2 bu4 ba2 miserly/ very stingy/ unwilling to give up even a hair
    一技之长 yi1 ji4 zhi1 chang2 professional skill/ specially
    一哄而散 yi1 hong4 er2 san4 break up in a hubbub
    一个劲儿 yi1gejin4’er persistently
    一干二净 yi1 gan1 er4 jing4 completely/ thoroughly

     

  • 饮水思源 yin3 shui3 si1 yuan2 never forget where one’s happiness comes from
    一帆风顺 yi1 fan1 feng1 shun4 plain sailing
    引人注目 yin3 ren2 zhu4 mu4 conspicuous/ noticeable
    新陈代谢 xin1 chen2 dai4xie4 metabolism
    欣欣向荣 xin1xin1 xiang4 rong2 flourishing/ prosperous
    小心翼翼 xiao3xin1 yi4yi4 with great care
    想方设法 xiang3 fang1 she4 fa3 do everything possible/ try every means HSK D
    显而易见 xian3 er2 yi4 jian4 obviously/ stick out a mile
    无微不至 wu2 wei1 bu4 zhi4 meticulously/ in every possible way
    一概而论 yi1gai4 er2 lun4 lump together al and sundry/ lump under one head
    斩钉截铁 zhan3 ding1 jie2 tie3 resolute and decisive
    自私自利 zi4 si1 zi4 li4 self-concern/ selfish
    自力更生 zi4 li4 geng1 sheng1 self-dependence
    自负盈亏 zi4 fu4 ying2 kui1 assume sole responsibility for its profits or losses
    诸如此类 zhu1 ru2 ci3 lei4 and all that/ and so on
    众所周知 zhong4 suo3 zhou1 zhi1 as everyone knows/ it is common knowledge that
    争先恐后 zheng1 xian1 kong3 hou4 strive to be the first/ vie with each other
    以身作则 yi3 shen1 zuo4 ze2 set oneself an example to others
    朝气蓬勃 zhao1 qi4 peng2 bo2 full of youthful spirit
    无能为力 wu2 neng2 wei2 li4 incapable of action/ powerless
    斩草除根 zhan3 cao3 chu2 gen1 cut the weeds and dig up the roots
    指手画脚 zhi3 shou3 hua4 jiao3 make indiscreet remarks or criticism
    有声有色 you3 sheng1 you3 se4 vivid and dramatic
    有口无心 you3 kou3 wu2 xin1 be sharp-tongued but not malicious
    由此可见 you2 ci3 ke3 jian4 thus it can be seen

    chengyu-kinezika-gnomika
    永垂不朽 yong3 chui2 bu4 xiu3 immortal
    朝三暮四 zhao1 san1 mu4 si4 blow hot and cold/ play fast and loose
    萍水相逢 ping2 shui3 xiang1 feng2 meet by chance
    热泪盈眶 re4 lei4 ying2 kuang4 one’s eyes brimming with tears
    前所未有 qian2 suo3 wei4 you3 unprecedented
    前赴后继 qian2 fu4 hou4 ji4 advance wave upon wave
    千军万马 qian1 jun1 wan4 ma3 a large number of mounted and foot soldiers
    恰如其分 qia4 ru2 qi2 fen4 just right/ appropriate
    恰到好处 qia4 dao4 hao3 chu4 just right
    无所作为 wu2 suo3 zuo4 wei2 attempt and accomplish nothing
    奇花异草 qi2 hua1 yi4 cao3 exotic flowers and rare herbs
    十全十美 shi2 quan2 shi2 mei3 be perfect in every way/ leave nothing to be desired
    百花齐放 bai3 hua1 qi2 fang4 let a hundred flowers blossom
    目中无人 mu4 zhong1 wu2 ren2 consider everyone beneath one’s notice
    莫名其妙 mo4 ming2 qi2 miao4 without rhyme or reason
    名副其实 ming2 fu4 qi2 shi2 be worthy of the name/ the name matches the reality
    面面俱到 mian4 mian4 ju4 dao4 reach every aspect of a matter
    乱七八糟 luan4qi1ba1zao1 in a mess/ at sixes and sevens
    岂有此理 qi3 you3 ci3 li3 outrageous/ preposterous
    讨价还价 tao3 jia4 huan2 jia4 bargain HSK D
    连滚带爬 lian2 gun3 dai4 pa2 roll and crawl/ flee in panic
    无可奉告 wu2 ke3 feng4 gao4 no comment
    无话可说 wu2 hua4 ke3 shuo1 have nothing to say
    微不足道 wei1 bu4 zu2 dao4 not worth mentioning/ inconsiderable
    万水千山 wan4 shui3 qian1 shan1 the trials of a long journey
    推来推去 tui1 lai2 tui1 qu4 push/ decline
    如醉如痴 ru2 zui4 ru2 chi1 enjoy (the concert; etc) very much
    天长地久 tian1 chang2 di4 jiu3 everlasting
    三番五次 san1 fan1 wu3 ci4 again and again/ time and again
    滔滔不绝 tao1tao1 bu4 jue2 dash along/ give it mouth
    探头探脑 tan4 tou2 tan4 nao3 pop one’s head in and look about
    损人利己 sun3 ren2 li4 ji3 harm others to benefit oneself
    似笑非笑 si4 xiao4 fei1 xiao4 a faint on one’s face/ with a spurious smile
    似是而非 si4 shi4 er2 fei1 specious/ apparently right but actually wrong
    思前想后 si1 qian2 xiang3 hou4 think over again and again
    无情无义 wu2qing2wu2yi4 heartless
    投机倒把 tou2ji1 dao3ba3 engage in speculation and profiteering

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